a molniya orbit

Are You Learning English? Below is an exaggerated representation: A body in an uneven orbit will slow down as it approaches apogee (comet orbits are not unlike this, albeit vastly elongated), and in this case the distance of the apogee from earth means satellites in this orbit are able to observe the northern hemisphere uninterrupted for almost eight hours per day. The Molniya orbit is an egg-shaped orbit which brings the satellite 450-650km above the southern hemisphere at the closest approach, and almost 40,000km above the northern hemisphere at the most distant. I should point out here that Molniya orbits are an orbital path, not an orbital plane. It is named for the satellites that use it ("Molniya" is Russian for "Lightning"). The Molniya orbit is a satellite that moves in an extreme ellipse with the Earth close to one edge. All content copyright © original author unless stated otherwise. A Molniya orbit could just as easily be used to observe say, Asia, as it could be to observe the Americas. The blue corner created something called the Defense Support Program, which used a fleet of satellites in geostationary orbits, monitoring the earth's surface for ballistic missile exhaust trails using infrared sensors. Between 1965 and 1974, forty Molniya communication satellites were launched by the USSR into highly elliptic orbits with a period near 12 hr, initial perigee height near 500 km and initial inclinations of either 65 or 63 deg. Molinya was invented by the Russians and works well for observing high latitudes. These satellites were in several groups of four, each in slightly different orbits to observe slightly different spots. A highly elliptical orbit inclined at an angle of about 65° to the plane of the equator, such as is occupied by the Russian Molniya satellites. Molinya orbits work well for far northern or southern locations, which are always on the edge of view for a geostationary satellite. Here Are Our Top English Tips, The Best Articles To Improve Your English Language Usage, The Most Common English Language Questions, don't count your chickens before they're hatched. They still employed satellites, but placed them in a highly elliptical orbits which would allow them to observe the missile fields of the blue corner for extended periods of time. A Molniya orbit is a specific kind of Tundra orbit, the specifics of which I don't remember off the top of my head. Log in or register to write something here or to contact authors. This system is still in use today. Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites which have been using this type of orbit since the mid 1960s.… The Molniya orbit is a satellite that moves in an extreme ellipse with the Earth close to one edge. Which of the following is a type of dance? The orbits are such that the satellite passes close to the earth near the South Pole, travelling fast; and at a great distance from the earth near the North Pole, travelling slowly. Soviet missile launch-detection satellites would fly this orbit, positioned such that the continental U.S. was right on the edge of the earth's sphere, as seen by the satellite's cameras. Everything2 ™ is brought to you by Everything2 Media, LLC. The red corner used a variation on this theme. Molinya was invented by the Russians and  works well for observing high latitudes. List of countries Belgium has bombed since the Cold War ended, Grand Cross planetary alignment; August, 1999, Spy satellites can't read your license plate, The Failure of Containment During the Cold War, Report of the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States July 15, 1998, U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission; "Molniya Orbit"; , Forden, Geoffrey; "False Alarms on the Nuclear Front"; , Pike, John; "Defense Support program"; , Lindborg, Christina; "Molniya"; , Parrington, Lt. Col. Alan J. In order to maintain a constant watch on American missile fields, a constellation of carefully-spaced satellites on the same orbit were required so the area being watched was always in view of at least one of them. The orbits are such that the satellite passes close to the earth near the South Pole, travelling fast; and at a great distance from the earth near the North Pole, travelling slowly. Only one false alarm is known to have been generated by Molniya satellites: on September 26, 1983 a rare alignment of a Molniya satellite with the sun and the area it was observing caused it to mistake sunlight reflected off high-altitude clouds for several nuclear missile launches from the U.S. At the time the system had only been in place a short time and only indicated five missiles had been launched - inconsistent with U.S. strategic nuclear doctrine of a single massive strike - so no alert passed beyond the commanding officer of the installation monitoring the satellites. A Molniya orbit (Russian: Молния; IPA: [ˈmolnʲɪjə] , "Lightning") is a type of highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of −90 degrees and an orbital period of one half of a sidereal day. It's named for a series of Russian communications satellites that serve their high arctic (and the Molniya rocket that launched them, which is a slightly modified Soyuz). Each side came up with their own methods for doing this, but they all boiled down to keeping a sharp eye on the enemy's nuke farms. Satellites in Molniya orbits can "hover" over a particular area for hours at a time. Definition A Molniya orbit is a type of highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of −90 degrees and an orbital period of one half of a sidereal day.

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