atmospheric data meaning

This dataset consists of seasonally resolved timeseries of surface pressure at 18 Antarctic research stations, spanning 1905-2013. The formats for both are generally the same, with the major difference being the treatment of missing data. also be useful for studies with a particular regional focus. The products are derived from measurements of the... As defined by a US National Research Council committee, a Climate Data Record (CDR) is "a time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency and continuity to determine climate variability and change." and uncertainty. The radar data produces detailed images of cloud structures. Atmospheric CDRs were created to address the need for Climate Variables, especially Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).

Atmospheric energy, mass, and moisture budgets can be computed by vertically integrating reanalysis fields and employing suitable corrections (e.g. If a longer list is of interest, see Quality control is performed through comparisons with... Maps of the monthly self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (SCPDSI) have been calculated for the period 1901–2002 for the contiguous United States (20°–50°N and 130°–60°W) and Europe (35°–70°N, 10°W–60°E) with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. mass). The Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) has been identified as a coherent mode of natural variability occurring in the North Atlantic Ocean with an estimated period of 60-80 years. This technique uses precipitation estimates that have been derived from low orbiter satellite microwave observations exclusively, and whose features are transported via spatial... A global (82S-82N) cloud fraction data set, providing a unique view of cloud vertical structure, has been developed based on the complimentary spaceborne remote sensing capabilities of the CloudSat radar and the CALISPSO lidar.

Note that in many (or probably most) studies of mean sea-level data, it will be Monthly-mean air Each term is available. It is a global, high resolution, coupled atmosphere-ocean-land surface-sea ice system designed to provide the best estimate of the state of these coupled domains over this period. The result is better circulation over the tropics and southern hemisphere. Slivinski et al. Developed by Dr. Peter E Thornton to fulfill the need for daily climatological data necessary for plant growth model inputs, Daymet generates daily, gridded surfaces of temperature, precipitation, humidity, and radiation over large regions and takes into account areas of complex terrain. As well as the tides, the sea level as measured by tide gauges is locally depressed or elevated by changes in the weight of the atmosphere above the sea, (local high or low air pressure, the Local Inverse Barometer (LIB) effect). Gauge reports from over 30,000 stations are collected from multiple sources including GTS, COOP, and other national and international agencies. There is no single intercomparison study ( In the 1960s, the global growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide was roughly 0.6 ± 0.1 ppm per year. The PSMSL is grateful to Gil Compo, Rob Allan, Philip Brohan, Tara Ansell and

WRIT will also soon have tools for .

pressure data are often needed to make LIB corrections to the monthly-mean this table on the website and consider a literature

Several algorithmic improvements have been made by the AIRS Project in conjunction with the AIRS Science Team. in many parts of the world. The CFSR includes (1) coupling of atmosphere and ocean during the... Clouds cover about 70% of the earth's surface. Formerly the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)…, Ocean Near-surface Atmospheric Properties. The CERA-20C is a global, coupled reanalysis spanning 1901-2010 with a focus on low-frequency climate variability. ECMWF ERA5 Atmospheric Pressure Data Set Information. They are important components of the cliimate's water and energy budgets. Half Absorption Altitude is defined to be the altitude in the atmosphere (measured from the Earth's surface) where 1/2 of the radiation of a given wavelength incident on the upper atmosphere has been absorbed. Reanalyses are created via an unchanging ("frozen") data assimilation scheme and model(s) which ingest all available observations every 6-12 hours over the period being analyzed. This data set is constructed from an analysis of gauge data and satellite-derived precipitation estimates. That is an increase of 2.5 ± 0.1 ppm from 2018, the same as the increase between 2017 and 2018.

The Goddard Space Flight Center built the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) on which the first ERBE instruments were launched by the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. Produced on a regular lat-lon grid for regions such as North America, Europe, and Australia, these centuries-long datasets are convenient for comparisons... E-OBS is a high spatial resolution daily gridded data that covers the European region and is based on the station data collated by the ECA&D initiative (Klein Tank et al., 2002). or

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) project has generated decadal-length, The resulting flows of energy by the climate components (atmosphere, ocean, ice, etc) determine the climate.

The Atmospheric upper-air ECVs are: Temperature, Wind It is the first reanalysis to directly assimilate satellite radiance data (TOVS, SSM/I, ERS and ATOVS). No IR values are used. It consists of a variational data assimilation system (OceanVar), capable of assimilating all in-situ observations along with altimetry data, and a forecast step... "CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique) produces global precipitation analyses at very high spatial and temporal resolution.

The following figure shows the amount of absorption at different wavelengths in the atmosphere. Global atmospheric carbon dioxide was 409.8 ± 0.1 ppm in 2019, a new record high. AIRS provides satellite retrieval of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide even under cloudy conditions, without the use of a priori information from models. and 20th centuries was HADSLP2.

Its mission is to develop and support strategies that empower people to make the behavioural and lifestyle changes needed to keep our planet from warming by 2° Celsius above pre-industrial levels. depressed or elevated by changes in the weight of the atmosphere above the sea,

As well as the tides, the sea level as measured by tide gauges is locally - for the North Atlantic and Europe, are not covered in detail here, but may

Tree-ring drought atlases provide a paleoclimate analog to modern drought indices, most commonly the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The satellites fly... CMAP refers to a collection of precipitation data sets, though the 2.5°x2.5° global monthly version is probably the most widely used. The Atmospheric upper-air ECVs are: Temperature, Wind speed and direction, Water vapor, Cloud properties, Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance). Data is available from the CDS cloud server The CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System)10-minute data can be used to derive the land categories. Annual net land-atmosphere carbon flux and net flux of carbon to the atmosphere due to land-use and land-use change (LULUC) are estimated using an integrated assessment model and three historical reconstructions of land use and land use conversion. Making climate data accessible and user-friendly like this atmospheric CO2 levels graph is a campaign of the 2° Institute (2 Degrees Institute). AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder): Version 6 Level 2. (Hersbach et al., 2020)

is recommended, because it is the first ensemble of (sub‐daily) global

The Arctic System Reanalysis is a multi-agency, university-led retrospective analysis (reanalysis) of the Greater Arctic. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) project has generated decadal-length, global, gridded data sets of temperature and specific humidity for several standard levels in the troposphere for the obs4MIPS project. The Coordinated Ocean Research Experiments version 2  (COREv2) data set consists of a globally complete set of air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater for 1948-2009 at monthly resolution. The sea surface height relative to the geoid (the mean ocean surface of the Earth if the ocean is at rest) is derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, and OSTM/Jason-2 altimetry measurements. It is based upon the average anomalies of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic basin, typically... Reanalysis a systematic approach to produce data sets for climate monitoring and research. The CCMP wind analysis is a near-global, high spatial and temporal resolution gridded dataset of surface wind vectors spanning 1987-present. The Atmospheric surface ECVs are: Air temperature, Wind speed and direction, Water vapor, Pressure, Precipitation, Surface radiation budget. This leads to differing teleconnections and global impacts, as well as implications for ENSO predictability. review of intercomparison of datasets. EMULATE CHELSA is essentially a statistical downscaling of the... CHOMPS utilizes all available passive microwave satellite estimates to develop improved global daily rainfall time series. Cloud Motion Winds are also used. : CloudSat is one of a constellation of satellites known as the A-Train (Cloudsat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, Aqua, Aura, GCOM-W1). CDRs are often generated by blending satellite observations, in-situ data, and/or model output. Atmospheric CDRs were created to address the need for Climate Variables, especially Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). (2019) - their Figs.

Ultimately, the net difference between incoming and outgoing radiation determines if... CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. The CRU TS series of data sets (CRU TS = Climatic Research Unit Timeseries) contain monthly timeseries of precipitation, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, cloud cover, and other variables covering Earth's land areas for 1901-2015 (CRU TS4.0 is a recent release). ERBE instruments were also launched on two National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather monitoring satellites, NOAA... EN4 is a subsurface temperature and salinity dataset for the global oceans, spanning 1900 to present at a monthly timestep.

Pugh and Woodworth (2014; Cambridge: CUP, 407pp). The most recent/accurate and consistent retrieval schemes have been used in the creation of the... "CLARA-A1 (CLoud, Albedo and RAdiation dataset, AVHRR-based, version 1) is a global dataset of cloud properties, surface albedo and surface radiation products, generated by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF). available geophysical parameters. NOAA Paleo- and Historical Climate Forcing Data Access a range of proxy data used to calculate radiative forcing in the past. The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners.

This page describes some of the sources of air comparison of ocean reanalyses. station pressure time series, owing to the lack of station data near to gauges Atmospheric pressure is the weight of the atmosphere on a surface. suitable gridded air-pressure data set for sea level studies of the late-19th global, gridded data sets of temperature and specific humidity for several standard

The Atmospheric composition ECVs are: Carbon dioxide, Methane, and other long-lived greenhouse gases[3], Ozone and Aerosol, supported by their precursors. The array has approximately 1 float for every 3 degrees of latitude and... El Niño and La Niña, the two phases of ENSO, are sometimes described as opposites.

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