The expression levels of pfl (encoding pyruvate-formate lyase), adhE (encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/ethanol dehydrogenase), ackA (encoding acetate kinase), acs (encoding acetyl-CoA synthase), accC (encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase), and E184.108.40.206 (encoding phosphate acetyltransferase) were the highest at T1 (Figures 2B, 3).
The metabolic profiles of fatty acid biosynthesis are shown in Figure 3B.
70, 910–938. 24 h after gavage, L. bulgaricus was undetectable in feces, whereas the implantation curve of S. thermophilus LMD-9 was similar to that observed with Ino-LMD9 (data not shown). Transport and Regulators, proteins involved in transport and regulators, other than those involved in carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and Environ.
The induction of p27kip1 was also observed in Ino-LMG18311 (2-fold) and Ino-LMD9+Lb (1.5-fold) (Fig. In both conditions, bacterial The expression levels of the genes associated with the glycolytic pathway are shown in Figure 3. Rev. The latter organisms utilize lactose by a specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system in which the lactose hydrolysis products, glucose and galactyose-6-phosphate, are concurrently metabolized to lactic acid.
Med. YQ and ZF conceived the presented idea. (2015). bulgaricus for the manufacture of yoghurt. Osmotic stress affects the stability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus buchneri R1102 as a result of intracellular betaine accumulation and membrane characteristics. 91, 1023–1029. Microaerophilic conditions (no aeration) were applied in this study. (2007). Therefore, the aim of the present All results were The formula
1, the cytoplasmic membrane was separated from the cell wall. Microbiol. Multi-omics approach to study the growth efficiency and AA metabolism in Lactococcus lactis at various specific growth rates. It tests negative for cytochrome, oxidase, and catalase, and positive for alpha-hemolytic activity. Our observation is in accord with previous reports suggesting that monocarboxylic acid transporters provide a link between Each culture condition was repeated three times. Microbiology 147, 2255–2264. Bacteriol 78, 426–429. The expression levels of the genes involved in the carbohydrate transport systems and phosphate transport system were high at the end-lag and end-exponential growth phases, respectively. The changes in extracellular concentration of sorbitol indicated that this sugar was imported into the intracellular environment, mainly from T2 to T4.
with a complex microbiota, we have previously described a precocious hyperproliferative phase at the level of colonic epithelium Global analysis of carbohydrate utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus using cDNA microarrays. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.04.145, Takahashi, H., Kai, K., Shinbo, Y., Tanaka, K., Ohta, D., Oshima, T., et al. Despite its large utilization and consumption, its probiotic-associated traits, and its presence in the intestinal microbiota, The protein concentrations were determined by the Coomassie protein assay reagent (Pierce), using bovine serum albumin Acad. Indeed, we showed that The results showed that most of the genes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism had their highest expression levels at the lag phase. Colonic epithelial cells were isolated from the whole colon according to the method described by Cherbuy et al. • Improvements will benefit both consumers and producers of dairy products. Tetragenococcus halophilus converts citric acid via PFL to acetic acid and ethanol, and numerous LAB have the ability to convert citric acid to lactate (Gänzle, 2015). The electron microscopic investigations were carried out using a HITACHI H-7650 electron microscope (Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan). The energy produced by carbohydrate metabolism might be primarily used to resist high osmotic pressure stress and intracellular acid stress.
Appl. Appl. Variations in the energy metabolism of biotechnologically relevant heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during growth on sugars and organic acids. The objective of the present work was to explore both the metabolic activity and host response of S. thermophilus in vivo. Transcriptome analysis of Liangshan pig muscle development at the growth curve inflection point and asymptotic stages using digital gene expression profiling. The luminal content of jejunum, ileum, cecum, and feces was diluted in 10 volumes from the pool of feces of three rats. 52 proteins displayed different abundances between the two conditions; 11 were up-regulated (induction from 2- to 11-fold), The lactates were measured in the supernatants with Biosentec d/l-lactic acid enzymatic kits according to the manufacturer's instructions (Biosentec, Toulouse, France). Cell Stress Chaperon. in Ino-LMD9 rats, EF-Tu, which displays the characteristics of an adhesion factor (21), is mainly involved in the maintenance of S. thermophilus rather than in the protein synthesis. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. (p < 0.05) between GF (mean ΔCt = 14.9 ± 0.1, n = 6) and Ino-LMD9 rats (ΔCt = 13.8 ± 0.1, n = 8), that represented a 2.2-fold stimulation in the presence of LMD-9. Figure 1B shows the changes in the concentrations of the carbohydrates mentioned below. The pH was maintained at 6.25 by the automatic addition of 1 M NaOH. S. thermophilus generates lactic acid as one of the metabolic end-products. (2008). Its economic value, combined with an increasing demand for novel starter cultures with improved functionality, foster numerous research efforts to unravel key aspects of S. thermophilus physiology. dairy products (Emmental, Gruyere, Parmigiano, mozarella, yogurt, etc.). In addition, to evaluate the stability of the LC-MS instrument during the acquisition, a quality control sample was acquired every 10 samples. 10, 1–12. 6, 613–624. 140, 73–79.
For SLC16A1, SLC16A2, and SLC5A8 genes, real-time quantitative PCR was performed on cDNAs in an ABI PRISM 7000 sequence detection Chem. cell isolation or for histological procedures. Received: 29 July 2019; Accepted: 29 December 2019;Published: 21 January 2020. The expression level of galT was the highest at T2 (Figure 3). A p-value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. These include sugar metabolism, proteolysis and the production of important metabolites such as acetaldehyde, exopolysaccharides, and vitamins, which affect the organoleptic properties of fermented foods and protocooperation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Natl. Environ.
Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus strain MN-ZLW-002. In addition, 166 DGEs associated with carbohydrate metabolism were identified during the growth of ST-MZ-2. The formvar-coated copper grids were immersed in the bacterial suspension for 10 min; then stained with 2% phosphotungstic acid (PTA) for 5 s after the removal of excess liquid and air drying; the grid was air- dried again before examination. J. Ind. Can.
Stimulus perception in bacterial signal-transducing histidine kinases. The expression levels of most of the genes decreased gradually with culture time. Only U-shaped longitudinally the induction of cell cycle arrest proteins could be triggered by a single bacterium.
shown). Food. Interestingly, acetic acid and ethanol were also increased detected at the same time, and their concentrations were increased during the culture of ST-MZ-2. Influence of the incubation temperature on the autolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus.
Expression of an anaplerotic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, improves recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. The changes in intracellular concentrations of octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, and tetradecanoic acid indicated a decrease in saturated fatty acid synthesis from T3 to T4. (GeneTex; dilution 1:5000) and with the Envision+ system-HRP (Dako, France) according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. The changes in the intracellular concentrations of most metabolites of purine after the mid-exponential phase indicated that the cells were accumulating purine for DNA and RNA synthesis during this period. 3A), with a 196 ± 26-μm crypt depth mean and the detection of bifurcating crypts (noted with arrows in Fig. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus strain MN-ZLW-002. Acetic acid interferes with bacterial energetics, inhibits the expression of the proteins and genes involved in the stress response and regulation processes, causes low pH, and inhibits bacterial growth (Papagianni, 2012).
In the feces of Ino-LMD9 rats, proteins of S. thermophilus were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, listed (see supplemental Table 1), and classified into different functional categories (Fig. U. S. A. 71, 8597–8605. (2013). The pH was maintained at 6.25 through the automatic addition of 1 mol/L NaOH.
C, representative autoradiography films of Western blot revealing p27kip1, PCNA, p21cip1, and Bcl2 from colonic epithelial cells of GF (n = 2) and Ino-LMD9 (n = 4) rats. Separation of cell wall and cell membrane lysis (Figure 4C (1)) cytoplasmic membrane from the cell wall (Figure 4D (1)) and cytoplasmic content leakage (Figure 4D (2)) were observed during later fermentation stages. The changes in the sum of the fragments per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped (FPKM) involved in carbohydrate transport systems are shown in Figure 1B. Microbiol.
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